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PowerShell PKI Module Documentation

New-SelfSignedCertificateEx

Synopsis

This cmdlet generates a self-signed or CA-signed certificate

Syntax

New-SelfSignedCertificateEx [-Subject] <String> [[-NotBefore] <DateTime>] [[-NotAfter] <DateTime>] [-SerialNumber <String>] [-ProviderName <String>] [-AlgorithmName <String>] [-KeyLength <Int32>] [-KeySpec <String> {Exchange | Signature} ] [-EnhancedKeyUsage <Oid[]>] [-KeyUsage <X509KeyUsageFlags>] [-SubjectAlternativeName <String[]>] [-IsCA <Boolean>] [-PathLength <Int32>] [-CustomExtension <X509ExtensionCollection>] [-SignatureAlgorithm <String> {MD5 | SHA1 | SHA256 | SHA384 | SHA512} ] [-AlternateSignatureFormat] [-Issuer <X509Certificate2>] [-FriendlyName <String>] [-Runtime] [-AllowSMIME] [-Exportable] [<CommonParameters>]

New-SelfSignedCertificateEx [-Subject] <String> [[-NotBefore] <DateTime>] [[-NotAfter] <DateTime>] [-SerialNumber <String>] [-ProviderName <String>] [-AlgorithmName <String>] [-KeyLength <Int32>] [-KeySpec <String> {Exchange | Signature} ] [-EnhancedKeyUsage <Oid[]>] [-KeyUsage <X509KeyUsageFlags>] [-SubjectAlternativeName <String[]>] [-IsCA <Boolean>] [-PathLength <Int32>] [-CustomExtension <X509ExtensionCollection>] [-SignatureAlgorithm <String> {MD5 | SHA1 | SHA256 | SHA384 | SHA512} ] [-AlternateSignatureFormat] [-Issuer <X509Certificate2>] [-FriendlyName <String>] [-StoreLocation <StoreLocation>] [-AllowSMIME] [-Exportable] [<CommonParameters>]

New-SelfSignedCertificateEx [-Subject] <String> [[-NotBefore] <DateTime>] [[-NotAfter] <DateTime>] [-SerialNumber <String>] [-ProviderName <String>] [-AlgorithmName <String>] [-KeyLength <Int32>] [-KeySpec <String> {Exchange | Signature} ] [-EnhancedKeyUsage <Oid[]>] [-KeyUsage <X509KeyUsageFlags>] [-SubjectAlternativeName <String[]>] [-IsCA <Boolean>] [-PathLength <Int32>] [-CustomExtension <X509ExtensionCollection>] [-SignatureAlgorithm <String> {MD5 | SHA1 | SHA256 | SHA384 | SHA512} ] [-AlternateSignatureFormat] [-Issuer <X509Certificate2>] [-FriendlyName <String>] -Path <FileInfo> -Password <SecureString> [-AllowSMIME] [-Exportable] [<CommonParameters>]

Description

This cmdlet generates a self-signed or CA-signed certificate with various options.

Note: self-signed certificates (non-CA) should not be used in a production environment, they are generally intended for testing purposes only.

Parameters

-Subject <String>

Specifies the certificate subject in a X500 distinguished name format.
Example: CN=Test Cert, OU=Sandbox

Required? True
Position? 0
Default value
Accept pipeline input? false
Accept wildcard characters? False

-NotBefore <DateTime>

Specifies the date and time when the certificate become valid. By default previous day date is used.

Required? False
Position? 1
Default value Previous day’s date
Accept pipeline input? false
Accept wildcard characters? False

-NotAfter <DateTime>

Specifies the date and time when the certificate expires. By default, the certificate is valid for 1 year.

Required? False
Position? 2
Default value 1 year from current day
Accept pipeline input? false
Accept wildcard characters? False

-SerialNumber <String>

Specifies the desired serial number in a hex format.
Example: 01a4ff2

If not specified, serial number is generated automatically.

Required? False
Position? named
Default value
Accept pipeline input? false
Accept wildcard characters? False

-ProviderName <String>

Specifies the Cryptography Service Provider (CSP) name. You can use either legacy CSP and Key Storage Providers (KSP). By default "Microsoft Enhanced RSA and AES Cryptographic Provider" CSP is used.

Required? False
Position? named
Default value Microsoft Enhanced RSA and AES Cryptographic Provider
Accept pipeline input? false
Accept wildcard characters? False

-AlgorithmName <String>

Specifies the public key algorithm. By default RSA algorithm is used. RSA is the only algorithm supported by legacy CSPs. With key storage providers (KSP) you can use CNG algorithms, like ECDH. For CNG algorithms you must use full name:
ECDH_P256
ECDH_P384
ECDH_P521

In addition, KeyLength parameter must be specified explicitly when non-RSA algorithm is used.

Required? False
Position? named
Default value RSA
Accept pipeline input? false
Accept wildcard characters? False

-KeyLength <Int32>

Specifies the key length to generate. By default an RSA 2048-bit key is generated.

Required? False
Position? named
Default value 2048
Accept pipeline input? false
Accept wildcard characters? False

-KeySpec <String>

Specifies the public key operations type. The possible values are: Exchange and Signature. Default value is Exchange.

Required? False
Position? named
Default value Exchange
Accept pipeline input? false
Accept wildcard characters? False

-EnhancedKeyUsage <Oid[]>

Specifies the intended uses of the public key contained in a certificate. You can specify either, EKU's friendly name (for example 'Server Authentication') or object identifier (OID) value (for example '1.3.6.1.5.5.7.3.1').

Required? False
Position? named
Default value
Accept pipeline input? false
Accept wildcard characters? False

-KeyUsage <X509KeyUsageFlags>

Specifies restrictions on the operations that can be performed by the public key contained in the certificate. Possible values (and their respective integer values to make bitwise operations) are:
EncipherOnly
CrlSign
KeyCertSign
KeyAgreement
DataEncipherment
KeyEncipherment
NonRepudiation
DigitalSignature
DecipherOnly

you can combine key usages values by using bitwise OR operation. When combining multiple flags, they must be enclosed in quotes and separated by a comma character. For example, to combine KeyEncipherment and DigitalSignature flags you should type: "KeyEncipherment, DigitalSignature".

If the certificate is CA certificate (see IsCA parameter), key usages extension is generated automatically with the following key usages: Certificate Signing, Off-line CRL Signing, CRL Signing.

Required? False
Position? named
Default value
Accept pipeline input? false
Accept wildcard characters? False

-SubjectAlternativeName <String[]>

Specifies alternative names for the subject. Unlike Subject field, this extension allows to specify more than one name. Also, multiple types of alternative names are supported.

The following syntax is used to specify alternative names (curve braces denote alternative name value):
DNS name: "dns:{dns_name}". Example: "dns:www.example.com"
RFC822 Name: "email:{email_address}". Example: "email:someone@example.com"
IP address: "ip:{ipv4_or_ipv6}". Example: "ip:192.168.0.1", "ip:fd00:0:0:4::41"
User Principal Name (UPN): "upn:{user_principal_name}". Example: "upn:someone@example.com"
Directory name: "dn:{X.500_name}". Example: "dn:CN=Someone, OU=OrgUnit, O=Example Inc., C=US"
Object Identifier (OID): "oid:{IANA_assigned_oid}". Example: "oid:1.2.3.4.5.6.99999"
URL: "url:{URL}". Example: "url:https://host.example.com/resource.html"
GUID: "guid:{GUID}". Example: "guid:42105db6-313e-41be-96ae-52fc4633507f"

Required? False
Position? named
Default value
Accept pipeline input? false
Accept wildcard characters? False

-IsCA <Boolean>

Specifies whether the certificate is Certification Authority (IsCA = $true) or end entity (IsCA = $false) certificate. If this parameter is set to $false, PathLength parameter is ignored. Basic Constraints extension is marked as critical.

Required? False
Position? named
Default value
Accept pipeline input? false
Accept wildcard characters? False

-PathLength <Int32>

Specifies the number of additional CA certificates in the chain under this certificate. If this parameter is set to zero, then no additional (subordinate) CA certificates are permitted under this CA.

Required? False
Position? named
Default value
Accept pipeline input? false
Accept wildcard characters? False

-CustomExtension <X509ExtensionCollection>

Specifies the custom extension to include to a self-signed certificate. This parameter must not be used to specify the extension that is supported via other parameters. In order to use this parameter, the extension must be formed in a collection of initialized System.Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Extension objects.

Required? False
Position? named
Default value
Accept pipeline input? false
Accept wildcard characters? False

-SignatureAlgorithm <String>

Specifies signature algorithm used to sign the certificate. By default 'SHA1' algorithm is used.

Required? False
Position? named
Default value SHA1
Accept pipeline input? false
Accept wildcard characters? False

-FriendlyName <String>

Specifies friendly name for the certificate.

Required? False
Position? named
Default value
Accept pipeline input? false
Accept wildcard characters? False

-StoreLocation <StoreLocation>

Specifies the store location to store self-signed certificate. Possible values are: 'CurrentUser' and 'LocalMachine'. 'CurrentUser' store is intended for user certificates and computer (as well as CA) certificates must be stored in the 'LocalMachine' store. If not specified, certificate is generated in memory and is not installed (persisted) in certificate store.

Required? False
Position? named
Default value
Accept pipeline input? false
Accept wildcard characters? False

-AllowSMIME <SwitchParameter>

Enables Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions for the certificate.

Required? False
Position? named
Default value
Accept pipeline input? false
Accept wildcard characters? False

-Exportable <SwitchParameter>

Marks private key as exportable. Smart card providers usually do not allow exportable keys.

Required? False
Position? named
Default value
Accept pipeline input? false
Accept wildcard characters? False

-Path <FileInfo>

Specifies the path to a PFX file to export a self-signed certificate.

Required? True
Position? named
Default value
Accept pipeline input? false
Accept wildcard characters? False

-Password <SecureString>

Specifies the password for PFX file.

Required? True
Position? named
Default value
Accept pipeline input? false
Accept wildcard characters? False

-AlternateSignatureFormat <SwitchParameter>

Specifies if PKCS#1 v2.1 signature format is used. When specified, RSA signature will be set to RSASSA-PSS and ECDSA will be set to EcdsaSpecified.

Note: this parameter may not be compatible with all cryptographic libraries.

Required? False
Position? named
Default value
Accept pipeline input? false
Accept wildcard characters? False

-Issuer <X509Certificate2>

Specifies the signer certificate to sign generated certificate. When specified, generated certificate will be CA-signed, not self-signed. Generated certificate will include issuer name in Issuer field and includes AuthorityKeyIdenditier extension with issuer's public key SHA1 hash.

Required? False
Position? named
Default value
Accept pipeline input? false
Accept wildcard characters? False

-Runtime <SwitchParameter>

Specifies whether the certificate is generated in memory without installing it in Windows Certificate Store. By default, generated certificate is installed in Windows Certificate Store. Use this switch parameter to avoid interaction with Windows Certificate Store. Object returned by this command will be the only reference to the certificate and caller must interact with returned object only.

Required? False
Position? named
Default value
Accept pipeline input? false
Accept wildcard characters? False

<CommonParameters>

This cmdlet supports the common parameters: Verbose, Debug,
ErrorAction, ErrorVariable, InformationAction, InformationVariable,
WarningAction, WarningVariable, OutBuffer, PipelineVariable and OutVariable.
For more information, see about_CommonParameters (https://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=113216).

Inputs

None.

Outputs

System.Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Certificate2

Notes

Examples

Example 1

PS C:\> New-SelfsignedCertificateEx -Subject "CN=Test Code Signing" -EKU "Code Signing" -KeySpec "Signature" `
 -KeyUsage "DigitalSignature" -FriendlyName "Test code signing" -NotAfter $((Get-Date).AddYears(5))

Creates a self-signed certificate intended for code signing and which is valid for 5 years. Certificate is saved in the Personal store of the current user account.

Example 2

PS C:\> New-SelfsignedCertificateEx -Subject "CN=www.domain.com" -EKU "Server Authentication", "Client authentication" `
 -KeyUsage "KeyEncipherment, DigitalSignature" -SAN "dns:sub.domain.com","dns:www.domain.com","ip:192.168.1.1" `
 -AllowSMIME -Path C:\test\ssl.pfx -Password (ConvertTo-SecureString "P@ssw0rd" -AsPlainText -Force) -Exportable `
 -StoreLocation "LocalMachine"

Creates a self-signed SSL certificate with multiple subject names and saves it to a file. Additionally, the certificate is saved in the Personal store of the Local Machine store. Private key is marked as exportable, so you can export the certificate with a associated private key to a file at any time. The certificate includes SMIME capabilities.

Example 3

PS C:\> New-SelfsignedCertificateEx -Subject "CN=www.domain.com" -EKU "Server Authentication", "Client authentication" `
 -KeyUsage "KeyEncipherment, DigitalSignature" -SAN "dns:sub.domain.com","dns:www.domain.com","ip:192.168.1.1" `
 -StoreLocation "LocalMachine" -ProviderName "Microsoft Software Key Storage Provider" -AlgorithmName ecdsa_p256 `
 -KeyLength 256 -SignatureAlgorithm sha256

Creates a self-signed SSL certificate with multiple subject names and saves it to a file. Additionally, the certificate is saved in the Personal store of the Local Machine store. Private key is marked as exportable, so you can export the certificate with a associated private key to a file at any time. Certificate uses Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) key algorithm ECDSA with 256-bit key. The certificate is signed by using SHA256ECDSA algorithm.

Example 4

PS C:\> New-SelfsignedCertificateEx -Subject "CN=Test Root CA, OU=Sandbox" -IsCA $true -ProviderName `
 "Microsoft Software Key Storage Provider" -Exportable

Creates self-signed root CA certificate.

Example 5

PS C:\> $signingCert = Get-Item cert:\CurrentUser\My\E160F8D2E4DBE18908F9C4D3C8DA8BB57118FCC8
PS C:\> $issuedCert = New-SelfsignedCertificateEx -Subject "CN=CA Signed Certificate, OU=Sandbox" -ProviderName `
 "Microsoft Software Key Storage Provider" -KeyUsage "KeyEncipherment" -Issuer $signingCert -Exportable

Creates a CA-signed certificate with exportable private key. Signer certificate is retrieved from Personal certificate store. Certificate thumbprint (or SHA1 hash) is used to select desired certificate. Issuer information is populated in issued certificate to indicate proper issuer. Certificate is generated in memory and not installed in certificate store.

Related links

Minimum PowerShell version support

  • PowerShell 3.0

Operating System Support

  • Windows 7
  • Windows 8
  • Windows 8.1
  • Windows 10
  • Windows Server 2008 R2 all editions
  • Windows Server 2012 all editions
  • Windows Server 2012 R2 all editions
  • Windows Server 2016 all editions
  • Windows Server 2019 all editions
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